History of Menorca history at Menorca
Prehistory: It is likely that the first inhabitants of the island were farmers, managed to reach the island towards the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. They left artificial caves dug into the rock, which were first used as a place of residence and later used as collective burial grounds. To this civilization followed that which is characterized by the "navetas", stone constructions resembling returned boats, which were used for burial. Then came the Talayotic civilization; the inhabitants built large conical towers which perhaps served as watchtowers. This civilization was followed by the one who built hypostyles, a place of worship formed of a room supported by columns. This room whose floor is 1.5 m below the outer ground level is surrounded by a wall with pilasters, and its ceiling is supported by columns. The civilization characterized by "taulas" resumed this pattern, but with a central dolmen formed of a vertical monolith surmounted by a horizontal monolith; it is surrounded by a wall in the shape of a horseshoe. There was a cult of which nothing is known, with animal sacrifices.
The Phoenicians and Greeks traded with the inhabitants of the island. The Carthaginians led by Magon, Hannibal's brother, landed on the island in the 3rd century. before JC and created the enclaves of Jamma (Ciudadella) and Magon (Mah? n). They recruited (by force?) The Honderos Baleares, a corps of the Carthaginian army, which was very effective.
Invasions: Led by Quinto Cecilio Metelo, the Romans conquered the island in - 123 and dominated it until 427, year of the conquest of the island by the Vandals. Then it was the turn of the Byzantines led by Belisario and finally Moors.
Muslim Menorca: The Moors conquered the island in 903 and placed it under the domination of the Caliphate of Cordoba. Islamization was intense. But in 1232, the Moorish leaders of the island accepted the king of Aragon, who had conquered Mallorca, as suzerain, which allowed them to continue to govern Menorca with a certain autonomy. But they had to leave Menorca in 1287.
The reconquest: The king of Aragon took possession of Menorca in 1287; he gave the island to the kingdom of Mallorca. But King Pedro el Ceremonioso took the island back to Mallorca, before annexing the kingdom of Mallorca to the kingdom of Aragon. Menorca took advantage for a moment of this attachment to a prosperous country, but there were troubles in the country, due in particular to peasant revolts. In addition, Turkish pirates often made incursions: they destroyed, looted and dragged the inhabitants into slavery. The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were disastrous.
Under British rule: The British invaded the island in 1708 taking advantage of the Spanish war of succession. They stayed there for nearly a century with a 7-year break between 1756 and 1763 when they were replaced by the French, and another between 1782 and 1798 after they were defeated by a Franco-Spanish coalition. The English finally left the island in 1802. Their influence is still perceptible today.
Civil War: During the Civil War, the island remained faithful to the Republicans; she had to go in 1939.
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